The extraction of nucleic acids consists in the isolation of DNA or RNA from animal or plant tissues, bacteria, yeasts/molds and viruses. The extraction of nucleic acids requires diverse steps, including: the fragmentation of the starting tissue or, in the case of liquid samples, the concentration of the cells on a filter; cell lysis; the removal of other interfering molecules such as proteins, lipids or carbohydrates; recovery and concentration of DNA or RNA; the quantification of the recovered nucleic acids. DNA extraction and its purification are the critical steps in a PCR experiment. The efficiency and sensitivity of a genetic test are, in fact, deeply conditioned by the purity and the extractive yield and these, in turn, are linked to the type of food matrix considered.
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